# About Schools

### The New National Curriculum in England

The new national curriculum was introduced into all maintained primary and secondary schools in England from September 2014. The Government has made it available on line for all to see: Here

Academies and Free schools may choose to teach this, but if they do not, the curriculum they offer must be at least as good. Independent schools do not have to teach the national curriculum.

### Key Stages

Schools are organised broadly into what are known as Key Stages. The pupils' age dictates which Key Stage they belong to. Currently a rough guide to the ages is as follows:

Key Stage 1 | 5-7-years-old | Year Groups 1 - 2 |

Key Stage 2 | 7-11-years-old | Year Groups 3 - 6 |

Key Stage 3 | 11-14-years-old | Year Groups 7 - 9 |

Key Stage 4 | 14-16-years-old | Year Groups 10 - 11 |

From September 2014

Key Stage 1 | 5-7-years-old | Year Groups 1 - 2 |

Lower Key Stage 1 |
7-9-years-old | Year Groups 3 - 4 |

Upper Key Stage 2 |
9-11-years-old | Year Groups 5 - 6 |

Key Stage 3 | 11-14 years-old |
Year Groups 7 - 9 |

Key Stage 4 | 14-16 years-old |
Year Groups 10 - 11 |

### Assessments

I recommend you ask your child’s school how it will be telling you about your child’s progress. Each school makes its own decision about this.

These targets give you a gist of the sort of things your child should be able to do by the end of the school year. They are not intended as a complete summary!!

### Reception

- Reliably count up to ten
- Using the numbers from 1 to 10, be able to find one more / one less
- Understand the meaning of words such as more or less, heavier or lighter, greater or smaller when comparing say two numbers or quantities

### Year 1

- Reliably count up to 20
- Know all the pairs of numbers with a total of 10
- Be able to put the numbers 0 to 20 in order
- Solve simple problems mentally by counting on, doubling and halving, and be able to explain their methods orally

### Year 2

- Count, read, write and put into order numbers up to 100
- Be able to count on, or back, in ones or tens from any two digit number
- Be able to use a ruler to draw and measure lines to the nearest centimetre
- Know their 2 and 10 times tables by heart

Some schools have been sending home Parent Booklets that give a list of numeracy targets for your child for the year, and give ideas of how to help your child with mathematics. You can download these for yourself.

Remember, do not worry if they seem ahead in some areas and not so strong in others. Children learn at different rates.

### Glossary

**Array**

This is an organised arrangement of objects.

**Average**

An average is a way we summarise data to give a 'typical value'. There are three types of average, the mean, the median and the mode. (See below.)

**Decimals or Decimal Fractions**

Decimals, or decimal fractions to give them their full name, are fractions with denominators 10, 100, 1000, etc. We use a

special notation to write these fractions, called decimal notation, and write 1⁄10 as 0.1, 1⁄100 as 0.01, etc. **Denominator**

See fractions.

**Fractions** In every day life, we use the word fraction to mean something smaller. Fractions have a similar meaning in mathematics except that when you split something into fractions, either an item such as a cake, or an amount such as 30p, you split whatever you start with into smaller equal parts. Halving is splitting the something into two equal parts; splitting into thirds means splitting the something into three equal parts.

We use special symbols to show a fraction.

A half is written 1⁄2. The bottom number (the **denominator**) tells you the number of equal parts, the top number (the **numerator**) tells you the number of these equal parts you want.

**Inverse Operations**

These are operations that reverse or 'undo' the original operation.

Division and multiplication are what are known as inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are also inverse operations.

E.g. With addition and subtraction, starting with 4, then add 3, we get 7. But, 7 *minus* 3 gets us back to 4, the number we started with. The subtraction undoes the addition.

Written out, it looks like this: 4 + 3 = 7, and 7 - 3 = 4.

The same happens with division and multiplication. If we start with 3 multiplied by 4 we get 12. If we divide 12 by 4 we get 3, the number we started with.

Written out, it looks like this: 3 x 4 = 12, and 12 ÷ 4 = 3.

**Mean**

The mean is one of the ways we describe an average.

The mean is found by adding together all the values, and then dividing the sum by the number of values.

For example, find the mean of this club's football scores:

- 1, 5, 2, 0, 7, 2, 1, 2, 6, 2, 5

There were 11 scores, so we add together the scores, and divide the total by 11.

- Mean =0+1+1+2+2+2+2+5+5+6+7⁄11=33⁄11= 3

**Median**

The median is one of the ways we describe an average. The median is the middle value, when we have rearranged the data, putting the values in order, starting with the lowest (see [folio 66]).

**Mode**

The mode is one of the ways we describe an average. The mode is the value that occurs the most often. So if we look at the number of goals scored by a football team in eleven matches:

- 1, 5, 2, 0, 7, 2, 1, 2, 6, 2, 5

The score that occurs the most often is 2. And so the mode is 2.

**Numerator**

See fractions.

**Partitioning**

This is splitting a number into 100's, 10's and units etc. For example, twelve is a ten and a two, or 12 = 10 + 2.

**Range**

The range is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data.

**Ratio**

A ratio is a way we compare two or more quantities. The list of ingredients for a recipe is an example of a practical way we use ratios.

**Sequence**

A sequence is a list of numbers (or shapes) that are in a given order, and there is a rule for continuing the sequence and finding the next member, and as many subsequent members as we may want to find.

**Symbols**

: We use a colon, :, as the symbol to mean ratio.

**>** Means 'is greater than'. For example, 7 > 3, which says, '7 is greater than 3'. Please note, the larger number is at the wide side of the symbol, and the smaller number is at the pointed side of the symbol.

**<** Means 'is less than'. For example, 43 < 85, which says, '43 is less than 85'. Please note, the smaller number is at the pointed side of the symbol, and the larger number is at the wide side of the symbol.